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The Grammar-Translation Method
The Direct Method
The Audiolingual Method
The Silent Way
Community Language Learning
Total Physical Response
The Communicative Approach
The Task-based Approach
The Content-based Approach and CLIL
THE SUGGESTOPEDIC METHOD:
This is one of the most contreversial methods borned in the sixteens, its creator was the psychologist Georgi Lozanov who thought in the use of the suggestion through music, relaxation, deep breathing, imagination and concert sessions. It is an adaptation of the philosophical oriental religion based on the meditation and relaxation programmes. The learning process of this method is to spend a funny time: “When a person more laugh and more times is wrong, that person learns more” (Enrique R. Pérez Novas, graduate in Suggestopedia). What Suggestopedia tries is to replace negative suggestions in ex-change of possitive suggestions. Through the active suggestion, the objective is to give confidence to the students, and its here where the teacher plays an important role making them to believe in them-selves.
THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN SUGGESTOPEDIA:
The teacher is the motor of this machine called Suggestopedia, depending on his behavior the suggestive effect in the students will be right or wrong. Verbal and non verbal elements in the classroom, the voice intonation, corporal movements, the guidance and the creation of dinamic games play an important role in this learning process creating possitive encouragement between the students.
CREATING A STATE OF CONCENTRATIVE PSYCHORELAXATION:
One of the most important goals of a suggestopedic teacher is to make students to get what is called as a “concentrative psychorelaxation” state of mind (Lozanov); this is the optimal state of brain activity for learning in which the level of relaxation is neither to deep nor too shallow. Techniques such as role plays, quizzes and games are effective. Work in grammar is introduced by phisical movements, colorful posters placed around the class or change of voice are some examples; with that examples what we get is the use of the subsconcious area called “peripheral perception” (Lozanov) of the students. All this activities are connected inside an harmonized structured orchestrated by a symphony.
THE SUGGESTOPEDIC LESSON:
Normally, a suggestopedic lesson is divided into four parts:
-Concert sessions (active and passive)
The suggestopedic includes artistic elements such as music, visual arts and stage arts to stimulate student’s creativity. The teacher uses songs in the elaborations and classical background music in the concert sessions or hangs colorfully made grammar posters around the classroom or give the group drawing tasks. He/she moves as an actor in the theater or recites poems and texts as a poet.
With a specially selected classical background music, the teacher reads the textbook solemnly and dramatically as a poet to make students absorb the amount of information. During a concert session, students are physically relaxed and mentally activated, that is called a “pseudopassive state”; in this state, to accumulate information in their minds, learners absorb the linguistic rhythm and meaning of vocabulary by attending to the voice of the teacher and following the text and translation.
A good method that the teacher can use is the “Jazz Chants” created by Carolyn Graham. It consists in the repetition of grammatical structures with the help of jazz music.
In the elaboration we try to put in practice what we have learnt by the use of conversations, dialogues, psycho-dramas, games, etc. Learners have to become in active subjects and if we want to get that we need the use of oral practices. A language came up as a necessity to comunicate with other persons, and it is difficult to do that without a good pronunciation.
In the last part of a suggestopedic lesson, we try to exert student’s memory to remember the knowledge given by the educational centre. Learning the use of visualizations, associations and imagery we can learn to keep a greater quantity of information.
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